Technology - Kandou

Imagining the Impossible

We’re dedicated to discovering faster, smarter solutions across high-speed signal conditioning. This passion for innovation has allowed us to create our current suite of leading-edge semiconductor chip products and intellectual property.

Our Technologies

All our technologies are underpinned by world-class knowledge and capabilities in four key areas. By constantly going beyond and exploring what’s possible, we’re helping more and more clients take their designs further than ever.

Chord™ Signaling
Chord™ Signaling
Our research programs have systematically explored several hundred different signaling techniques, including traditional ones. One result has been the invention of Chord™ Signaling – Kandou’s multi-wire signaling technology that is a generalization of differential signaling.
Forward error correction
Forward error correction
We have deep expertise in the development of FEC algorithms and blocks – a key enabler of high-performance links.
Analog, mixed-signal and SerDes design
Analog, mixed-signal and SerDes design
Our expert team of analog and mixed-signal designers bring world-class expertise in complex, high-rate semiconductor devices for mass production. With features including Serializer/Deserializer (SerDes), Phase Locked Loop (PLL), and clocking circuits, it’s a capability that is increasingly rare in the semiconductor industry.
Repeater system technology
Repeater system technology
We have a systems understanding of repeater technology, a core enabler for robustly extending the reach of high-performance links.
Applications of Chord Signaling
Long reach links
Chord’s unique signaling model delivers links with far better signal integrity and lower power consumption compared to those using differential techniques like PAM-4. For example, our ENRZ modulation technique delivers NRZ-like Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) performance, without PAM-4's power-hungry precise equalization. ENRZ has now been standardized by the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) as OIF-CEI-56G-LR-ENRZ.
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Memory links
Two Chord Signaling techniques have been adopted by JEDEC's physical layer group: JC-16, transform the potential of memory links. The first allows you to extend the bandwidth of serial memory modules with an ENRZ interface, and the second extends the reach of High Bandwidth Memory (HBM) interfaces with a half-duplex version of our CNRZ-5 interface.
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System in package links
As with Kandou’s Glasswing interface product, Chord Signaling is ideal for supporting very high bandwidth interfaces within a package using low-cost organic package substrates. While other solutions require expensive and yield-reducing silicon interposer at the manufacturing stage, Glasswing’s CNRZ-5 code offers ‘plug and play’ simplicity – giving you more bits whilst using less power.
Extending the life of copper
As bandwidth requirements have continued to increase, many have been predicting the demise of high-rate copper interfaces for years. Thanks to their advanced modulation techniques, our solutions are extending the lifetime of copper interfaces, reducing power usage, cost, and development time.
Tools to explore Chord Signaling
Fully develop in-house, KEYE is our GUI-based statistical eye simulator. With support for various Chord Signaling techniques – including ENRZ and CNRZ-5 – it is ideal for exploring the interaction between transceivers and channels.
Also developed in-house, TAU is our GUI-based time-domain SerDes modeling tool. Perfect for investigating the behavior of adaptation loops on transceivers, it supports short and fast simulation times for a time-based simulator.